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Racialized People, Women, and Social Enterprises: Politicized Economic Solidarity in Toronto

Caroline Shenaz Hossein

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Taylor and Francis Online


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For social enterprise to matter to racialized people, it must be purposefully embedded in the community. This study examines three nonprofit organizations led by women engaged in community economic development work – Firgrove Learning and Innovation Community Centre, Warden Woods Community Centre, and Elspeth Heyworth Centre for Women – in Toronto, one of the largest cities in North America. This study explores the work of these anti-racist feminist leaders who lack the certainty of funding from federal sources, yet understand that the key to making ethical community economies is to advance politicized economic solidarity and not to legitimize the corporatization of the social economy. This research also draws on the ethical coordinates of J.K Gibson-Graham to provoke a radical shift in the accepted understanding of social innovation in the enterprising development sector.

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